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Thermoelectric phenomenon was discovered more than 180 years ago. However, it enjoyed its practical application in the middle of the XX century, 130 years later after its discovery thanks to the research work of Soviet academician Abram Ioffe.
Nevertheless, the pioneer of thermoelectricity was the German scientist Thomas Johann Seebeck (1770-1831), born in the Estonian town of Revere, whose experimental results were summarized in 1822 in an article entitled Magnetische Plarisation der Matalle und Erze durch Temperature Differenz in the Proceedings of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. Plarisation der Matalle und Erze durch Temperature Differenz. Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akad, Wissenschaften, pp. 265-373) in which he summarized the results of his experiments. Seebeck found that if the ends of a circuit consisting of two heterogeneous metals soldered at different temperatures are closed, a magnetic needle placed near it rotates as if there were a magnet. The angle of rotation depends on the value of the temperature difference at the joints of the circuit. This physical phenomenon is known as the Seebeck effect.
However, two years earlier, in 1820, Hans Christian Oster (1777-1851) proved that electric currents affect magnetic needles. Later, when Ampere, Beal, Savart, Laplace and other scientists studied the interaction of electric currents and magnetic fields, Seebeck denied the electrical nature of this phenomenon. As the name of his article indicates, his scientific ideas were related to the magnetization of materials at temperature differences. According to this hypothesis, the Earth is like a huge circuit with a temperature difference maintained between the two cold poles and the hot equator. At least, this is Seebeck's view of the Earth's magnetism.
Hans Oersted, who followed the thread of Seebeck's research work with much attention, was the first who named this phenomenon thermoelectric effect. Seebeck himself insisted on the name of thermomagnetism.
Seebeck gathered much research material that dealt with circuits consisting of various combinations of hard and liquid metals, alloys and compositions of metals and effect of temperature difference on them. Basing on this research work, he founded "thermoelectric row", which is still in use along with those, which were composed later.
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